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Acknowledgement
Stage of Cancer

It is important to know the stage of the disease in order to plan the best treatment.

Source: Online Dictionary, National Cancer Institute, US

Select the type of cancer :

Adrenocortical Cancer
  • stage I adrenocortical cancer: The cancer is smaller than 5 centimeters (smaller than 2 inches) and has not spread into tissues around the adrenal gland.

  • stage II adrenocortical cancer: The cancer is larger than 5 centimeters (about 2 inches) in size and has not spread into tissues around the adrenal gland.

  • stage III adrenocortical cancer: The cancer has spread into tissues around the adrenal gland or has spread to the lymph nodes around the adrenal gland.

  • stage IV adrenocortical cancer: The cancer has spread to tissues or organs in the area and to lymph nodes around the adrenal cortex, or the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
Anal Cancer
  • stage I anal cancer: The cancer has spread beyond the top layer of anal tissue and is smaller than 2 centimeters (smaller than 1 inch).

  • stage II anal cancer: Cancer has spread beyond the top layer of anal tissue and is larger than 2 centimeters (about 1 inch), but it has not spread to nearby organs or lymph nodes.

  • stage III anal cancer: Stage III anal cancer is divided into stage IIIA and III B. Stage IIIA anal cancer has spread to the lymph nodes around the rectum or to nearby organs such as the vagina or bladder. Stage IIIB anal cancer has spread to the lymph nodes in the middle of the abdomen or in the groin, or the cancer has spread to both nearby organs and the lymph nodes around the rectum.

  • stage IIIA anal cancer: Cancer has spread to the lymph nodes around the rectum or to nearby organs such as the vagina or bladder.

  • stage IIIB anal cancer: Cancer has spread to the lymph nodes in the middle of the abdomen or in the groin, or the cancer has spread to both nearby organs and the lymph nodes around the rectum.

  • stage IV anal cancer: Cancer has spread to distant lymph nodes within the abdomen or to organs in other parts of the body.
Bladder Cancer
  • stage I bladder cancer: Cancer cells have spread into the inner lining of the bladder but have not spread to the muscular wall of the bladder.

  • stage II bladder cancer: Cancer cells have spread to the muscular wall of the bladder.

  • stage III bladder cancer: Cancer cells have spread throughout the muscular wall of the bladder, to the layer of tissue surrounding the bladder, and/or to the nearby reproductive organs.

  • stage IV bladder cancer: Cancer cells have spread to the wall of the abdomen or pelvis or to nearby lymph nodes, or it has spread to lymph nodes and other parts of the body far from the bladder.
Breast Cancer
  • stage I breast cancer: Cancer that is no bigger than 2 centimeters (about 1 inch) and has not spread outside the breast.

  • stage II breast cancer: Stage II breast cancer means one of the following: cancer is no larger than 2 centimeters but has spread to the lymph nodes in the armpit (the axillary lymph nodes); cancer is between 2 and 5 centimeters (from 1 to 2 inches) and may have spread to the lymph nodes in the armpit; cancer is larger than 5 centimeters (larger than 2 inches) but has not spread to the lymph nodes in the armpit.

  • stage III breast cancer: Stage III is divided into stages IIIA and IIIB. In stage IIIA breast cancer, the cancer (1) is smaller than 5 centimeters and has spread to the lymph nodes in the armpit, which have grown into each other or into other structures and are attached to them; or (2) is larger than 5 centimeters and has spread to the lymph nodes in the armpit. In stage IIIB breast cancer, the cancer (1) has spread to tissues near the breast (skin, chest wall, including the ribs and the muscles in the chest); or (2) has spread to lymph nodes inside the chest wall along the breast bone.

  • stage IIIA breast cancer: Stage IIIA breast cancer is defined by either of the following: (1) the cancer is smaller than 5 centimeters and has spread to the lymph nodes under the arm, which have grown into each other or into other structures and are attached to them; (2) the cancer is larger than 5 centimeters and has spread to the lymph nodes under the arm. stage IIIB breast cancer: Stage IIIB breast cancer is defined by either of the following: (1) the cancer has spread to tissues near the breast (skin, chest wall, including the ribs and the muscles in the chest); (2) the cancer has spread to lymph nodes inside the chest wall along the breast bone.

  • stage IV breast cancer: Cancer has spread to other organs of the body, most often the bones, lungs, liver, or brain; or tumor has spread locally to the skin and lymph nodes inside the neck, near the collarbone.
Cervix Cancer
  • stage I cancer of the cervix: Cancer involves the cervix but has not spread to nearby tissues. In stage IA cancer of the cervix, a very small amount of cancer that is only visible under a microscope is found deeper in the tissues of the cervix. In stage IB cancer, a larger amount of cancer is found in the tissues of the cervix.

  • stage II cancer of the cervix: Cancer has spread to nearby areas but is still inside the pelvis. In stage IIA cancer of the cervix, cancer has spread beyond the cervix to the upper two thirds of the vagina; in stage IIB, cancer has spread to the tissue around the cervix.

  • stage III cancer of the cervix: Cancer has spread throughout the pelvic area, and cancer cells may have spread to the lower part of the vagina. The cells also may have spread to block the tubes that connect the kidneys to the bladder (the ureters).

  • stage IV cancer of the cervix: Cancer has spread to other parts of the body. In stage IVA cancer of the cervix, cancer has spread to the bladder or rectum (organs close to the cervix); in stage IVB cancer of the cervix, cancer has spread to distant organs such as the lungs.
Colorectal Cancer
  • stage I colorectal cancer: Tumor cells are found in deeper layers of tissue lining the colon/rectum. Tumor cells have not spread to nearby lymph nodes. Also called Dukes A colorectal cancer.

  • stage II colorectal cancer: Tumor cells have spread beyond the colon/rectum but not to the lymph nodes. Also called Dukes B colorectal cancer.

  • stage III colorectal cancer: Tumor cells have spread to organs and lymph nodes near the colon/rectum. Also called Dukes C colorectal cancer.

  • stage IV colorectal cancer: Cancer cells have spread to organs and lymph nodes in other parts of the body.
Esophagus Cancer
  • stage I cancer of the esophagus: Cancer is found in the lining of the esophagus but has not spread to nearby tissues, lymph nodes, or other organs.

  • stage II cancer of the esophagus: Cancer may be found in all layers of esophageal tissue, and may have spread to regional lymph nodes, but has not spread to other tissues.

  • stage III cancer of the esophagus: Cancer has spread to tissues or lymph nodes near the esophagus but has not spread to other parts of the body.

  • stage IV cancer of the esophagus: Cancer has spread to lymph nodes and other parts of the body far from the esophagus.
Endometrial Cancer
  • stage I endometrial cancer: Cancer is found only in the main part of the uterus and not in the cervix.

  • stage II endometrial cancer: Cancer cells have spread to the cervix.

  • stage III endometrial cancer: Cancer cells have spread outside the uterus to the vagina and/or lymph nodes in the pelvis but have not spread outside the pelvis.

  • stage IV endometrial cancer: Cancer cells have spread to the lining of the bladder or rectum or to distant parts of the body. stage I cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: Stage I cutaneous T-cell lymphoma may be either of the following: (1) stage IA cancer affecting less than 10% of the skin's surface and appearing as red, dry, scaly patches; (2) stage IB cancer affecting 10% or more of the skin's surface and appearing as red, dry, scaly patches.
Hodgkin's disease
  • stage I Hodgkin's disease: Cancer is found in only one lymph node area or in only one area or organ outside the lymph nodes.

  • stage II Hodgkin's disease: Cancer is found in two or more lymph node areas on the same side of the diaphragm (the thin muscle under the lungs that helps one breathe), or cancer is found in only one area or organ outside of the lymphatic system and in the lymph nodes around it. Other lymph node areas on the same side of the diaphragm may also have cancer.

  • stage III Hodgkin's disease: Cancer is found in lymph node areas on both sides of the diaphragm (the thin muscle under the lungs that helps one breathe). The cancer may have also spread to an area or organ near the lymph node areas and/or to the spleen.

  • stage IV Hodgkin's disease: Cancer has spread to an organ or organs outside the lymph system; or cancer has spread to only one organ outside the lymph system, but lymph nodes far away from that organ are involved. Cancer cells may be found in the lymph nodes near these organs.
Hypopharynx Cancer
  • stage I hypopharynx cancer: The tumor is confined to one area of the hypopharynx and is no larger than 2 centimeters (about 0.75 inch) in size.

  • stage II hypopharynx cancer: The tumor involves more than one area of the hypopharynx or is between 2 and 4 centimeters (between 0.75 and 1.5 inches) in size.

  • stage III hypopharynx cancer: The tumor is larger than 4 centimeters (about 1.5 inches) in size, has spread to a single lymph node on the same side of the neck, or both.

  • stage IV hypopharynx cancer: The tumor has spread to nearby tissues and lymph nodes of the neck and may have spread to other parts of the body.
Kidney Cancer
  • stage I kidney cancer: A kidney tumor 2.75 inches (7 cm) or smaller.

  • stage II kidney cancer: A kidney tumor larger than 2.75 inches.

  • stage III kidney cancer: Kidney cancer that has spread to the major veins of the kidney and may have spread to a single lymph node.

  • stage IV kidney cancer: Kidney cancer that has spread beyond the kidney to lymph nodes or organs.
Laryngeal Cancer
  • stage I laryngeal cancer: The cancer is only in the area where it started and has not spread to nearby lymph nodes or to other parts of the body. The exact definition of stage I depends on whether the cancer started in the supraglottis (cancer is only in one area of the supraglottis, and the vocal cords can move normally), the glottis (cancer is only in the vocal cords, and the vocal cords can move normally), or the subglottis (cancer has not spread outside the subglottis).

  • stage II laryngeal cancer: The cancer is only in the larynx and has not spread to lymph nodes in the area or to other parts of the body. The exact definition of stage II depends on whether the cancer started in the supraglottis (cancer is in more than one area of the supraglottis, but the vocal cords can move normally), the glottis (cancer has spread to the supraglottis, the subglottis, or both, the vocal cords may not be able to move normally), or the subglottis (cancer has spread to the vocal cords, which may not be able to move normally).

  • stage III laryngeal cancer: The cancer has not spread outside of the larynx, but the vocal cords cannot move normally, or the cancer has spread to tissues next to the larynx; or the cancer has spread to one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the original tumor, and the lymph node measures no larger than 3 centimeters (just over 1 inch).

  • stage IV laryngeal cancer: The cancer has spread to tissues around the larynx, such as the pharynx or the tissues in the neck. The lymph nodes in the area may contain cancer; the cancer has spread to more than one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the cancer, to lymph nodes on one or both sides of the neck, or to any lymph node that measures more than 6 centimeters (over 2 inches); or the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
Leukemia
  • stage 0 chronic lymphocytic leukemia: There are too many lymphocytes in the blood, but there are usually no other symptoms of leukemia.

  • stage I chronic lymphocytic leukemia: There are too many lymphocytes in the blood, and lymph nodes are swollen.

  • stage II chronic lymphocytic leukemia: There are too many lymphocytes in the blood, and the liver or spleen is swollen.

  • stage III chronic lymphocytic leukemia: There are too many lymphocytes in the blood, and there are too few red blood cells (anemia). Lymph nodes, liver, or spleen may be swollen.

  • stage IV chronic lymphocytic leukemia: There are too many lymphocytes in the blood and too few platelets. This makes it hard for the blood to clot. Lymph nodes, liver, or spleen may be swollen and there may be too few red blood cells present (anemia).
Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer
  • stage I lip and oral cavity cancer: The cancer is no larger than 2 centimeters (about 1 inch) and has not spread to nearby lymph nodes.

  • stage II lip and oral cavity cancer: The cancer is larger than 2 centimeters (about 1 inch) but smaller than 4 centimeters (smaller than 2 inches) and has not spread to lymph nodes in the area.

  • stage III lip and oral cavity cancer: The cancer is larger than 4 centimeters (about 2 inches); or the cancer is any size but has spread to only one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the cancer. The lymph node that contains cancer is no larger than 3 centimeters (just over one inch).

  • stage IV lip and oral cavity cancer: The cancer has spread to tissues around the lip and oral cavity (the lymph nodes in the area may contain cancer); the cancer is any size and has spread to more than one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the cancer, to lymph nodes on one or both sides of the neck, or to any lymph node that is larger than 6 centimeters (larger than 2 inches); or the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
Lung Cancer
  • stage I non-small cell lung cancer: Cancer is in the lung only and has not spread to tissue around the lung.

  • stage II non-small cell lung cancer: Cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes.

  • stage III non-small cell lung cancer: Cancer has spread to structures near the lung; to the lymph nodes in the area that separates the two lungs (mediastinum); or to the lymph nodes on the other side of the chest or in the lower neck. Stage III is further divided into stage IIIA (usually can be resected which is sometimes treated with surgery) and stage IIIB (usually cannot be resected which is rarely treated with surgery).

  • stage IV non-small cell lung cancer: Cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
Lymphoma
  • stage I cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: Stage I cutaneous T-cell lymphoma may be either of the following: (1) stage IA cancer affecting less than 10% of the skin's surface and appearing as red, dry, scaly patches; (2) stage IB cancer affecting 10% or more of the skin's surface and appearing as red, dry, scaly patches.

  • stage II cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: Stage II cutaneous T-cell lymphoma may be either of the following: (1) stage IIA cancer, in which the skin has red, dry, scaly patches, but no tumors, and lymph nodes are enlarged but do not contain cancer cells; (2) stage IIB cancer, in which tumors are on the skin, and lymph nodes are enlarged, but do not contain cancer cells.

  • stage III cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: Nearly all of the skin is red, dry, and scaly; lymph nodes are either normal or enlarged but do not contain cancer cells.

  • stage IV cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: Stage IV cutaneous T-cell lymphoma may be either of the following: in stage IVA cancer, the skin is red, dry, and scaly, and the lymph nodes contain cancer cells; in stage IVB cancer, the skin is red, dry and scaly, cancer cells may be found in lymph nodes, and cancer has spread to other organs in the body.
Melanoma Cancer
  • stage I melanoma: Cancer is found in the outer layer of the skin (epidermis), the upper part of the inner layer of skin (dermis), or both but it has not spread to nearby lymph nodes. The tumor is no thicker than 1.5 millimeters.

  • stage II melanoma: The tumor is 1.5 to 4 millimeters thick. It has spread to the lower part of the inner layer of skin (dermis) but not into the tissue below the skin or into nearby lymph nodes.

  • stage III melanoma: Stage III melanoma is defined by any of the following: 1) the tumor is more than 4 millimeters thick; 2) the tumor has spread to the body tissue below the skin; 3) there are additional tumor growths within 2 centimeters of the original tumor (satellite tumors); or 4) the tumor has spread to nearby lymph nodes or there are additional tumor growths (satellite tumors) between the original tumor and the lymph nodes in the area.

  • stage IV melanoma: The tumor has spread to other organs or to lymph nodes far from the original tumor.
Mesothelioma
  • stage I mesothelioma: The cancer is found in the lining of the chest cavity near the lung and heart, in the diaphragm (the thin muscle below the lungs and heart that separates the chest from the abdomen), or in the lung.

  • stage II mesothelioma: The cancer has spread beyond the lining of the chest to lymph nodes in the chest.

  • stage III mesothelioma: Cancer has spread into the lung, chest wall, diaphragm (the muscle between the chest and the abdomen), the sac surrounding the heart, or the ribs. It may also have spread to other organs or tissues in the chest.

  • stage IV mesothelioma: Cancer has spread to distant organs or tissues.
Myeloma
  • stage I multiple myeloma: Relatively few cancer cells have spread throughout the body. There may be no symptoms of disease.

  • stage II multiple myeloma: A moderate number of cancer cells have spread throughout the body.

  • stage III multiple myeloma: A relatively large number of cancer cells have spread throughout the body. There may be one or more of the following: 1) a decrease in the number of red blood cells, causing anemia; 2) the amount of calcium in the blood is very high, because the bones are being damaged; 3) more than three bone tumors (plasmacytomas) are found; or 4) high levels of M-protein are found in the blood or urine.
Nasopharynx Cancer
  • stage I nasopharynx cancer: Cancer is confined to the nasopharynx.

  • stage II nasopharynx cancer: Stage II nasopharynx cancer may be either of the following: (1) stage IIA cancer, in which cancer extends from the nasopharynx to the oropharynx, nasal fossa, or both; (2) stage IIB cancer, in which cancer of the nasopharynx has spread to nearby lymph nodes or extends to the parapharyngeal area.

  • stage III nasopharynx cancer: Cancer that has spread to lymph nodes on both sides of the neck or has spread to nearby bones or sinuses.

  • stage IV nasopharynx cancer: Stage IV nasopharynx cancer may be one of the following. 1) Stage IVA: Cancer has spread beyond the nasopharynx to other areas in the head and may have spread to nearby lymph nodes. 2) Stage IVB: Cancer has spread beyond the nasopharynx to other areas in the head and to lymph nodes above the collarbone or that are larger than 6 cm. 3) Stage IVC: Cancer that has spread to other organs of the body.
Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma
  • stage I non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: Cancer is found in only one lymph node area or in only one area or organ outside the lymph nodes.

  • stage II non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: Cancer is found in two or more lymph node areas on the same side of the diaphragm (the muscle under the lungs that helps breathing). Cancer is found in only one area or organ outside the lymph nodes and in the lymph nodes around it. Other lymph node areas on the same side of the diaphragm may also have cancer.

  • stage III non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: Cancer is found in lymph node areas on both sides of the diaphragm. The cancer may also have spread to an area or organ near the lymph node areas, to the spleen, or both.

  • stage IV non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: Cancer has spread to more than one organ or organs outside the lymph system. Cancer cells may be found in the lymph nodes near these organs. Cancer has spread to only one organ outside the lymph system, but lymph nodes far away from that organ are involved.
Oropharynx Cancer
  • stage I oropharynx cancer: The tumor is no larger than 2 centimeters (about 0.75 inch) and is confined to the oropharynx.

  • stage II oropharynx cancer: The tumor is between 2 and 4 centimeters (between 0.75 and 1.5 inches) in size and is confined to the oropharynx.

  • stage III oropharynx cancer: The tumor is larger than 4 centimeters (about 1.5 inches) in size and may involve a single lymph node on the same side of the neck.

  • stage IV oropharynx cancer: The tumor has spread to the hard palate, tongue, or larynx, to nearby lymph nodes, and may have spread to other parts of the body.
Ovarian Cancer
  • stage I ovarian cancer: Cancer is found in one or both of the ovaries only and has not spread.

  • stage II ovarian cancer: Cancer is found in one or both ovaries and/or has spread to one of more of the following: the uterus, the fallopian tubes, other body parts within the pelvis.

  • stage III ovarian cancer: Cancer is found in one or both ovaries and has spread to lymph nodes or to other body parts inside the abdomen (such as the surface of the liver or intestine).

  • stage IV ovarian cancer: Cancer is found in one or both ovaries and has spread outside the abdomen or has spread to the inside of the liver.
Pancreatic Cancer
  • stage I pancreatic cancer: Cancer is found only in the pancreas itself or has started to spread to the tissues next to the pancreas (such as the small intestine, the stomach, or the bile duct).

  • stage II pancreatic cancer: Cancer has spread to nearby organs such as the stomach, spleen, or colon but has not entered the lymph nodes.

  • stage III pancreatic cancer: Cancer of the pancreas in which the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes near the pancreas. Cancer may have spread to nearby organs.

  • stage IV pancreatic cancer: Cancer of the pancreas in which the cancer has spread to organs near the pancreas (stage IVA) or to organs far away from the pancreas (stage IVB).

  • stage IVA pancreatic cancer: Cancer has spread to organs that are near the pancreas (such as the stomach, spleen, or colon) but has not spread to distant organs (such as the liver or lungs).
Prostate Cancer
  • stage I prostate cancer: Cancer that is only in the prostate gland, cannot be felt during a digital rectal examination, is not visible by imaging, and causes no symptoms. It is usually found accidentally or because a blood test showed an elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. Cancer cells may be found in only one area of the prostate or, they may be found in many areas of the prostate. Similar to stage A in the Whitmore-Jewett staging system.

  • stage II prostate cancer: Cancer that may be found by a needle biopsy performed because a blood test showed elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA); or cancer that may be felt in the prostate during a rectal examination, even though the cancer cells are found only in the prostate gland. Similar to stage B in the Whitmore-Jewett staging system.

  • stage III prostate cancer: Cancer cells have spread outside the covering (capsule) of the prostate to tissues around the prostate but not to the lymph nodes. The glands that produce semen (the seminal vesicles) may have cancer cells in them. Similar to stage C in the Whitmore-Jewett staging system.

  • stage IV prostate cancer: Cancer cells have spread to lymph nodes (near or far from the prostate) or to organs and tissues far away from the prostate such as the bone, liver, or lungs. Similar to stage D in the Whitmore-Jewett staging system.
Soft Tissue Sarcoma
  • stage IA soft tissue sarcoma: The cancer cells look very much like normal cells. The cancer is smaller than 5 centimeters in size (about 2 inches), but it has not spread to lymph nodes or other parts of the body.

  • stage IB soft tissue sarcoma: The cancer cells look somewhat different from normal cells. The cancer is larger than 5 centimeters (about 2 inches) and has not spread to lymph nodes or other parts of the body.

  • stage IIA soft tissue sarcoma: The cancer cells look somewhat different from normal cells. The cancer is larger than 5 centimeters (about 2 inches) and has not spread to lymph nodes or other parts of the body.

  • stage IIB soft tissue sarcoma: The cancer cells look very different from normal cells. The cancer is smaller than 5 centimeters (about 2 inches) and has not spread to lymph nodes or other parts of the body.

  • stage IIC soft tissue sarcoma: The cancer cells look very different from normal cells. The cancer is larger than 5 centimeters (about 2 inches) and has not spread to lymph nodes or other parts of the body.

  • stage III soft tissue sarcoma: The cancer cells look very different from normal cells. The cancer is larger than 5 centimeters (about 2 inches) but has not spread to lymph nodes or other parts of the body.

  • stage IV soft tissue sarcoma: The cancer has spread to lymph nodes in the area or other parts of the body (such as the lungs, head, or neck).
Stomach Cancer
  • stage I stomach cancer: Cancer is in the second or third layers of the stomach wall and has not spread to lymph nodes near the cancer, or is in the second layer of the stomach wall and has spread to lymph nodes very close to the tumor.

  • stage II stomach cancer: Stage II stomach cancer is defined by any of the following: (1) cancer is in the second layer of the stomach wall and has spread to lymph nodes further away from the tumor; (2) cancer is only in the muscle layer (the third layer) of the stomach and has spread to lymph nodes very close to the tumor; (3) cancer is in all four layers of the stomach wall but has not spread to lymph nodes or other organs.

  • stage III stomach cancer: Stage III stomach cancer is defined by any of the following: 1) cancer is in the third layer of the stomach wall and has spread to lymph nodes further away from the tumor; 2) cancer is in all four layers of the stomach wall and has spread to lymph nodes either very close to the tumor or further away from the tumor; or 3) cancer is in all four layers of the stomach wall and has spread to nearby tissues. The cancer may or may not have spread to lymph nodes very close to the tumor.

  • stage IV stomach cancer: Cancer has spread to nearby tissues and to lymph nodes further away from the tumor or has spread to other parts of the body.
Testicular Cancer
  • stage I testicular cancer: Cancer is found in the testicle only or has spread into the scrotum.

  • stage II testicular cancer: Cancer has spread to the lymph nodes in the abdomen.

  • stage III testicular cancer: Cancer has spread beyond the lymph nodes in the abdomen. There may be cancer in parts of the body far away from the testicles.
Uterus
  • stage I cancer of the uterus: Cancer is found only in the main part of the uterus and not in the cervix.

  • stage II cancer of the uterus: Cancer cells have spread to the cervix.

  • stage III cancer of the uterus: Cancer cells have spread outside the uterus to the vagina and/or lymph nodes in the pelvis but have not spread outside the pelvis.

  • stage IV cancer of the uterus: Cancer cells have spread to the lining of the bladder or rectum or to distant parts of the body.
Vulva
  • stage I cancer of the vulva: Cancer is found only in the vulva or the space between the opening of the rectum and the vagina (perineum). The tumor is 2 centimeters (about 1 inch) in size or smaller.

  • stage II cancer of the vulva: Cancer is found in the vulva, the space between the opening of the rectum and the vagina (perineum), or both, and the tumor is larger than 2 centimeters (larger than 1 inch).

  • stage III cancer of the vulva: Cancer is found in the vulva, perineum, or both. The cancer has also spread to nearby tissues such as the lower part of the urethra (the tube through which urine passes), the vagina, and the anus (the opening of the rectum); to nearby lymph nodes; or both.

  • stage IV cancer of the vulva: Cancer has spread beyond the urethra, vagina, and anus into the lining of the bladder (the sac that holds urine) and the bowel (intestine); or it may have spread to the lymph nodes in the pelvis or to other parts of the body.
Wilms' Tumour
  • stage I Wilms' tumor: Cancer is found in the kidney only and can be completely removed by surgery.

  • stage II Wilms' tumor: Cancer has spread to tissue near the kidney, to blood vessels, or to the renal sinus (a part of the kidney through which blood and fluid enter and exit). The cancer can be completely removed by surgery.

  • stage III Wilms' tumor: Cancer has spread to tissues near the kidney and cannot be completely removed by surgery. The cancer may have spread to blood vessels or organs near the kidney or throughout the abdomen. The cancer may also have spread to lymph nodes near the kidney.

  • stage IV Wilms' tumor: Cancer has spread to organs further away from the kidney (such as the lungs, liver, bone, and brain).

  • stage V Wilms' tumor: Cancer cells are found in both kidneys.

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